Effect on vineyard workers:
The workers in the vineyard are most at risk. In May 2012, the French government recognized the relationship between pesticides and Parkinson’s in agricultural workers, and in 2013 UCLA neurologists discovered a relationship between the benomyl pesticide and Parkinson’s disease (Caside et al. 2014).
Effect on the bees:
Certain exposure of bees in fungicides could cause harm in the population of bees.
- Direct exposure of bees to wet sprays or dried residues on leaves or flowers (sould kill adult bees.
- Indirect exposure has been linked to sublethal effects on foraging behavior, development, orientation, reproduction, learning and memory retention, and social interactions resulting from sharing a contaminated food source (Cloyd, 2018).
Effect on grape/wine quality:
- The application of fungicides to the vine before harvesting caused a decrease in the concentrations of nitrogenous compounds in grapes (Oliva, et al. (2011).
- The application of specific fungicides changed varietal aroma of white wines (reduced geraniol, increased fruity aroma due to increase of esters production during alcoholic fermentation) (González-Rodríguez et al. 2011)
Casida, J. E., Ford, B., Jinsmaa, Y., Sullivan, P., Cooney, A., & Goldstein, D. S. (2014). Benomyl, aldehyde dehydrogenase, DOPAL, and the catecholaldehyde hypothesis for the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Chemical research in toxicology, 27(8), 1359-1361.
Cloyd, R.A. (2018a). What About the Effect of pesticides on Bees? https://gpnmag.com/article/what-about-the-effect-of-fungicides-on-bees/
Cloyd, R.A. (2018b). What About the Effect of Fungicides on Bees? https://gpnmag.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/GPN_September_Dr.Bugs_.pdf
González-Rodríguez, R. M., Noguerol-Pato, R., González-Barreiro, C., Cancho-Grande, B., & Simal-Gándara, J. (2011). Application of new fungicides under good agricultural practices and their effects on the volatile profile of white wines. Food Research International, 44(1), 397-403.
Oliva, J., Garde-Cerdán, T., Martínez-Gil, A. M., Salinas, M. R., & Barba, A. (2011). Fungicide effects on ammonium and amino acids of Monastrell grapes. Food chemistry, 129(4), 1676-1680.